Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment of pneumonia

Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment of pneumonia


Sergey Semenov


The contents

  • What is pneumonia

  • Symptoms of pneumonia in adults and children

  • The clinical picture of pneumonia: symptoms in adults

  • Symptoms of pneumonia in children

  • Classification of pneumonia

  • Classification by occurrence of

  • Classification by volume of the lung

  • Symptoms of focal pneumonia

  • The unilateral form of the disease

  • Double pneumonia

  • Lobar pneumonia

  • Lobar pneumonia

  • Classification of pneumonia according to the cause of the disease

  • Pneumonia of viral etiology

  • Bacterial infection in the etiology of pneumonia

  • Features of staphylococcal pneumonia

  • The causative agent of mycoplasmal pneumonia

  • Chlamydial infection in the etiology of pneumonia

  • Fungal infections

Pneumonia or pneumonia refers to the acute infectious diseases. Pathogens of pneumonia can be viruses, bacteria, and fungi. There are also species such as aspiration pneumonia or paracanoe pneumonia that develops around the focus of the cancer in the tissues of the lung. At the first sign of pneumonia should immediately consult the doctor.

The inflammatory process in the lungs – a disease that can cause significant injury. Before the invention of antibiotics, mortality from pneumonia was 80%. At the moment in various regions of the indicators of death due to development of pneumonia ranges from 5 to 40%, and affects mostly elderly people.

The uncomplicated form of the disease with early diagnosis and treatment can be cured for 10-14 days. Modern medicines help to avoid serious complications and to cure virtually any form of inflammation of the lungs without consequences. However, you must remember that for effective treatment and successful prevention of complications of therapy of this disease should engage a specialist.

Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment of pneumonia

Photo: create jobs 51/

What is pneumonia

Pneumonia is the inflammatory process localized in the pulmonary tissue. In most cases the causative agent is an infectious agent. The path of infection in the body different, most often it is airborne, at least – been spreading through the bloodstream.

Part of the microorganisms responsible for the development of pneumonia is always present in the human body. When the proper level of immune protection of an organism to successfully cope with such infections by reducing the level of protective force (supercooling, the primary disease) develops an inflammatory process in the lungs.

Most often in the etiology of pneumonia are diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In this case, the background of the symptoms of the common cold, tracheitis, acute and chronic bronchitis, no other source of infection in the respiratory system develops an inflammatory process in the lungs. The appearance of the disease can also be the consequence of diseases of other organs and systems, complications after surgery, other situations that negatively affect the immune system.

Symptoms of pneumonia in adults and children

Symptoms of the disease depend on the causes that causes it, the age of the patient, his state of health. The disease is acute or develops were obliterated, may have the classical symptoms or be asymptomatic SARS. The most severe course of the disease with severe pulmonary complications observed in elderly patients, people with weakened immune systems and children with their imperfect immune system.

Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment of pneumonia

Photo: PR Image Factory /

The clinical picture of pneumonia: symptoms in adults

The most frequent triggering factor of the inflammatory process in the lungs in adults – hypothermia. Typical symptoms of pneumonia in such cases include the following symptoms that occur any:

  • suddenly developing body hyperthermia, a sharp rise of temperature to febrile figures;
  • symptoms of intoxication (fatigue, weakness, headaches);
  • 3-5 days there is a dry cough, rolling in the wet, with sputum;
  • pain in the chest from the affected side of the lung tissue (with double pneumonia on both sides) when coughing, breathing. Sometimes clearly audible wheezing;
  • the occurrence of dyspnea as a result of extensive lung damage and early respiratory failure.

Picture of the disease may not correspond to the classical scheme of development of the disease. The clinical manifestations and the severity of the disease largely depend on the type of the causative agent of the inflammatory process. Thus, among the atypical agents known to the H1N1 flu virus, an infectious agent “swine flu”, which causes severe complication of viral bilateral pneumonia accompanied by considerable lesions of the lung tissue with extensive inflammation, acute respiratory failure.

High frequency of pneumonia develops on the background of acute respiratory disease, SARS, accompanied by flu-like symptoms. The risk of pneumonia and the presence of other complications is significantly increased in self – “treatment” often consists in antipyretics. This contributes to the spread of infection down the airway and the formation of infectious foci in the lungs. Thus, the prevention of pneumonia in infectious diseases becomes a full course of treatment and timely diagnosis.

Symptoms of pneumonia in children

The incidence in children is correlated with age: children under three years suffer 2-3 times more often (1.5-2 cases per 100 persons) than children older than 3. Infants get sick more often pneumonia due to aspiration of gastric contents during regurgitation, the ingress of foreign bodies in the respiratory tract, birth injury, malformations.
Symptoms of pneumonia in children differ depending on age, etiology and spread of the inflammatory process.
At the age of one year there are the following symptoms:

  • drowsiness, lethargy, General malaise, lack of appetite;
  • irritability, frequent unexplained crying;
  • hyperthermia, often in low-grade range;
  • increased frequency of respiratory rhythm;
  • for a one-way process – signs of insufficient filling of one of the lungs, the backlog of half of thorax in the respiratory movements;
  • the symptoms of respiratory failure – cyanosis of nasolabial triangle, the fingertips especially during crying, feeding, heightened agitation.

From older children with pneumonia symptoms are similar to symptoms of pneumonia in adults: fever, weakness, drowsiness, increased sweating, loss of appetite, loss of interest in favorite activities, expressed General malaise may develop respiratory failure in the involvement in the inflammatory process of the vast areas of the lungs or the individual characteristics of the child.

Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment of pneumonia

Photo: Africa Studio /

Classification of pneumonia

The classification of forms of pneumonia, as well studied diseases are based on several factors, which allows to more accurately diagnose and more effectively treat pneumonia patients.

Classification by occurrence of

Distinguish community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia, hospital pneumonia. Nosocomial is a form that develops in a hospital, clinic 48 hours after hospitalization of the patient for other indications. Distinguish this type of pneumonia because of the characteristics of the flow and treatment, as in hospitals and hospitals often develop strains of infectious agents resistant to antimicrobial therapy.

Aspiration form that develops as a result of entering the lower respiratory tract of the contents of the oral cavity, nasopharynx or stomach, as well as foreign particles in the form of solids. Bacterial pathogens that reside in the aspiration masses or objects, evolve and cause severe form of inflammation with purulent complications: the production of purulent sputum, difficulties of transportation and significant lesions of the lung tissue.

Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment of pneumonia

Photo: wavebreakmedia /

Classification by volume of the lung

Depending on the prevalence of the inflammatory process, volume of the involved lung tissue there are several types of the disease.

Symptoms of focal pneumonia

The Focal form is characterized by a clear localization of the inflammatory process. Most often, this type develops as a complication of viral diseases. Noted a dry cough with transition to the wet form, high body temperature, pain when coughing, the sputum from purulent patches.

The unilateral form of the disease

The process captures only the right or only the left lung, and may spread to the small segment or to involve all of the shares of the body. Symptoms depends on the amount of destruction of the pathogen, the patient’s General condition, may be pronounced or be asymptomatic.

Double pneumonia

Localization of inflammatory foci noted in right and left lung. This inflammatory process can be segmental, lobar or involve the entire body. The main difference affects both sides of the lung, regardless of the volume of the lesion.

Lobar pneumonia

For this form of pneumonia is characterized by one of the most clearly defined clinical pictures. Distinctive external symptoms of croupous forms is a sharp increase in body temperature to limit indicators (40°C and above), severe pain, characteristic yellow-orange colour of sputum.
The causative agent of lobar pneumonia is more likely to be pneumococcus, and the timely use of antibacterial drugs (most commonly prescribed antibiotic penicillin) brings recovery as in croupous and other forms of pneumococcal pneumonia.

Lobar pneumonia

Easy – a body consisting of conditional shares: in the right lung three, left – two. If struck by one portion of the body, is an equity form, localization in two installments means bidilevel shape, unilateral or bilateral. With the defeat of the two lobes of the left lung talking about the total of pneumonia, two fractions of the right – Subtotal form.
Types of inflammation describe the vastness of the process and the severity of tissue damage. More segments and shares are involved, the more pronounced the symptoms.

Classification of pneumonia according to the cause of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease pathogen largely dictates the methods of therapy and choice of drugs. Depending on the reason and type of infectious agent there are several types of the disease

Pneumonia of viral etiology

Infectious inflammation of the lungs caused by viruses, can be a complication of influenza, parainfluenza or influenza (adenovirus form) or have a primary etiology. In view of the imperfection of diagnostic methods is not always possible to identify what kind of virus is responsible for causing the disease, so treatment is usually performed with the use of antiviral drugs broad-spectrum and is symptomatic.
If viral form prescribed Antibacterials, that means there are symptoms or the likelihood of secondary bacterial infection.

Bacterial infection in the etiology of pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most common types of pneumonia. There are several groups of bacteria that can cause inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Among them the most frequent causative agent of pneumonia is the pneumococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, chlamydia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and others.
With proper definition of the pathogen and selection of an effective drug bacterial form is treated successfully with antibiotics. However, it is important to remember in choosing therapy on the sensitivity of bacteria to drugs in a specific group.

Pneumonia: symptoms and treatment of pneumonia

Photo: Dragon Images /

Features of staphylococcal pneumonia

Staphylococcal form is most often a complication of SARS. The disease is characterized by significant symptoms of intoxication, scarlet color of sputum, weakness, dizziness.

The causative agent of mycoplasmal pneumonia

Mycoplasma form of pneumonia develops when released into the lung tissue special bacteria – Mycoplasma. Most often, this form of the disease affects children and adolescents.
The disease is characterized by marked symptoms, complicating the diagnosis, is treated successfully, although the process of therapy rather long because of the peculiarities of Mycoplasma as the causative agent.

Chlamydial infection in the etiology of pneumonia

The reason for the development of chlamydial pneumonia is getting into the Airways and lungs of chlamydia bacteria in normal bacterial causing chlamydia of the vagina. The most common path of infection from mother to child during the passage through the birth canal, if not was made antepartum vaginal disinfection of harmful flora and is present containing chlamydia.
This type is widespread to a greater extent among children, especially infants and adolescents, and at the initial stage has unexpressed clinical picture similar to acute respiratory infections. Therapy in this form of the disease is chosen individually, taking into account the age and characteristics of the patient.
Together with Mycoplasma infections, these two forms fall under the category of atypical pneumonia, also characterized by lesions of the alveoli and interstitial tissues. The nature of interstitial pneumonia most often protracted, with the transition in the chronic form.

Fungal infections

Various fungal pathogens can also cause inflammation in the lungs. The diagnosis requires a thorough examination, as the clinical picture is not manifested the symptoms for a long time can be quite “blurry”, not correspond to the classical manifestations of the disease of bacterial etiology. Prolonged treatment with application of antimycotic drugs.

All types and stages of pneumonia are considered serious disease dangerous complications and negatively affects the body as a whole. A properly selected course of therapy allows a high efficiency to cure the patients, provided timely treatment to the diagnosis and observance of appointments specialist.

You can help:

All doctors

Kuzmina Irina


Lenin Square

Irina Vinokurova Gennad’evna



Yermolenko, Yuliya Yur evna




If you like the article share it on social networks.